SWINE (Sus scrofa)
Physiologic parameters:
Body temperature = varies by breed: 37-39oC (98.6-102.2oF)
Heart rate = varies by breed: 58-105/min
Respiratory rate = varies by breed: 10-25/min
Tidal volume = varies by breed

  • Swine have a tendency to develop fatal arrhythmias during manipulation of the heart or pulmonary bronchus. Use Lidocaine infusion 0.3 mg/kg/hr or Bretyllium 3-5 mg/kg every hour to help prevent arrhythmias.
  • Metabolic acidosis and compensatory respiratory alkalosis predispose pigs to ventricular fibrillation. 
  • Anatomy of the larynx and soft palate can cause respiratory distress if an anesthetized pig is not intubated. However, anatomy and laryngospasm make intubation difficult. 
  • Size and temperament make restraint difficult. Premedication is essential. 
  • Certain breeds of pig are susceptible to malignant hyperthermia with gas anesthetics. 


  • Atropine 0.05 mg/kg IM

Anesthetic Agents and Tranquilizers Used in Swine